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    Online Practice Set : Who was the first Prime Minister in the world? (A) Indira Gandhi (B) Golda Meir (C) Margaret Thatcher (D) Shrimavo Bandaranaike Show Answer

    Job Information

    Joint Advisor in Telecom Disputes Settlement & Appellate Tribunal

    Government of India
    Telecom Disputes Settlement & Appellate Tribunal
    4th Floor, Room No. 478, Samrat Hotel, Chankyapuri, New Delhi-110021.
    No. 3/3/2013/Admn./4606 
    NOTICE

    Reference is invited to advertisement No.3/3/2013-Admn. published in the  Employment News dated 28 June -4 July, 2014 inviting applications for filling up  the post of Joint Advisor in the establishment of TDSAT on deputation basis.
    The last date for submission of applications, through proper channel, is hereby  extended upto 10th Oct

    Last date for filing of Online Application has been extended to 30-Sep-2014. | BC EBC Welfare Department, Bihar invites application for Fresh Application and Renewal for Post Matric Scholorship for 2014-15

    Last date for Apply Online 31st August 2014
    Last date for filing of Online Application has been extended to   30-Sep-2014 .

    BC EBC Welfare Department, Bihar  invites application for Fresh Application and Renewal for Post Matric Scholorship for 2014-15

    BC EBC Welfare Department, Bihar  invites application for Fresh Application and Renewal for Post Matric Scholorship for 2014-15 for resident of Bihar

    Eligibilty :

    • Resident of Bihar
    • Income should be below 1.00 Lac
    • Candidate should be BC/EBC as per cast defined by Govt of Bihar


    See Guideline and Apply online visit http://bcebcwelfare.bih.nic.in
    Apply online visit  http://117.239.22.109:9001/Registration/registration_login




    आवेदन करने की प्रक्रिया:-  
             सिर्फ आनलाईन आवेदन पत्र ही स्वीकार किये जाएगें। आनलाइन आवेदन वेबसाईट www.bcebcwelfare.bih.nic.in के माध्यम से किया जा सकता है। उम्मीदवारों को किसी भी प्रविष्टि बनाने या विकल्प को चुनने से पहले निर्देश को ध्यान से पढ़ना चाहिए, आनलाईन आवेदन भरते समय अभ्यर्थियों को सभी आवश्यक जानकारी प्रदान करनी चाहिए।  

             आपको वेबसाइट पर जाने से पहले निम्न तैयारी पूरी कर लेनी चाहिए। साथ ही उम्मीदवारों को निर्धारित समय सीमा के भीतर प्रक्रिया को पुर्ण करना होगा, निर्धारित समय अवधि के बाद, लिंक स्वतः समाप्त हो जाएगा।  

            सर्वप्रथम आवेदक को पंजीकरण की प्रक्रिया करनी होगी। पंजीकरण फार्म में आवेदक को पूरा नाम (मैट्रीक प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार), पिता/अभिभावक का नाम (मैट्रीक प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार), जन्म तिथि (मैट्रीक प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार), लिंग, धर्म, श्रेणी, उप जाति (जाति प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार), मोबाइल नम्बर, ई-मेल आईडी, आधार कार्ड संख्या (वैकल्पिक), स्थायी पता (आवासीय प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार) उपरोक्त विवरण प्रस्तुत करने पर, उम्मीदवार को यूजर आईडी(User ID) एवं पासवर्ड (Password) प्राप्त होगा। इस यूजर आईडी(User ID) एवं पासवर्ड (Password) को प्राप्त करने के बाद लाॅग-इन(Log In) करके फार्म भरना होगा।  

    आवेदन प्रपत्र भरने हेतु दिशा-निर्देश:-  
    1. खण्ड 1 में आवेदक का विवरण/व्यक्तिगत जानकारी भरी जाएगी।  
    i. आवेदक का नाम:- मैट्रीक प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार।  
    ii. जन्म तिथि:- मैट्रीक प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार।  
    iii. पिता/अभिभावक :- मैट्रीक प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार।  
    iv. जन्म तिथि:-(तिथि/महीना/वर्ष) मैट्रीक प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार।  
    v. (Category BC1/BC2)/श्रेणी:- जाति प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार  
    vi. जाति/उप जाति:- जाति प्रमाण-पत्र के अनुसार  
    vii. अभिभावक की वार्षिक आय:- आय प्रमाण पत्र के अनुसार  

    2. खण्ड 2 में स्थायी पता:- पूर्ण पता स्थायी आवासीय प्रमाण पत्र के अनुसार एवं पिनकोड सहित भरी जाएगी।  

    3. खण्ड 5 में वर्तमान अध्ययनरत संस्थान का नाम एवं विवरण।  
    • विश्वविद्यालय का नाम/द्वारा मान्यता (संस्थान का पूरा नाम, उदाहरण के तौर पर PU नही बल्कि Patna University लिखे)  
    • संस्थान/कॉलेज का नाम (कॉलेज का पूरा नाम, उदाहरण के तौर पर A.N College नही बल्कि Anugrah Narayan College लिखे)  

    4. खण्ड 11 में आवेदक आवेदन पत्र के साथ अनिवार्य रूप से समर्पित किये जानेवाले निम्न प्रमाण पत्र अपलोड करें (200KB से ज्यादा नहीं होना चाहिये)।  
    i. जाति प्रमाण पत्र  
    ii. अद्यतन आय प्रमाण पत्र ;एक वर्ष से ज्यादा पुराना नहीं होना चाहिए।  
    iii. स्थायी आवासीय प्रमाण पत्र  
    iv. गत उत्तीर्ण की गई परीक्षा का अंकपत्र  
    v. शिक्षण संस्थान का अनिवार्य शुल्क की मदवार अग्रसारित विवरणी।  
    vi. अध्ययनरत संस्था के मान्यता संबंधी का प्रमाण पत्र  
    vii. छात्रावासी प्रमाण पत्र  
    viii. अभिभावक का घोषणा-पत्र  

    नोट:-  आवेदन पत्र के साथ उपरोक्त वर्णित कागजात संलग्न नहीं किये जाने तथा आधे अधूरे एवं असत्य विवरण प्रस्तुत करने पर आवेदन पत्र अस्वीकृत कर दिया जायेगा।  
    Download करें  
    1. अभिभावक का घोषणा पत्र 2. दिशा निर्देश

    Contact on  0612-2230063



    Scientific Appliances And Their Working Principles

    • Scientific Appliances And Their Working Principles
      Aeroplane: An aeroplane usually consists of the following three parts: (i) Wings, (ii) The engine and the propeller; and (iii) The tail. Working: In order to operate an aeroplane, the propeller is made to revolve at a very high speed with the help of a powerful petrol engine. The direction of the blades is so adjusted as to push the air in a backward direction, thereby producing a relative velocity between the ’plane and air—thus pushing the aeroplane in a forward direction. The push should be large enough to overcome the drag  and should supply power for climbing.

      Air conditioning: is the process of controlling the humidity, temperature, purity and circulation of air in a certain factory, a public building, hotels or a private house. The major aim of air-conditioning is to regulate the temperature, thereby producing a “cooling effect” on the whole. Exhaust machines are devised at a particular place for driving out waste and dirty gases, thereby completely purifying the air.

      Binoculars: is an instrument used for seeing distant objects; the rays of light are twice reflected by means of right-angled prisms.

      Carburettor: It is an apparatus for getting liquid fuel mixed with air as it is taken into an automobile or other like engines.

      CD-Rom: It is a computer peripheral device that employs compact disk technology to store large amounts of digitized data for later retrieval.

      Cellular Phone: This phone allows you to make a telephone while on the move. It can be installed in vehicles or can be carried along.

      Cinematography: The  principle  of  persistence  of vision is utilised in cinematography. A cinematograph is an apparatus for projecting the pictures of moving objects on the screen. The instantaneous photographs of the successive positions of the moving body are photographed on a continuous film with the help of a special camera called the movie camera, with an automatic shutter at the rate of nearly 16 per second. The film duly developed is projected intermittently with a similar shutter as above so that it opens when the film is stationary and closes when it jerks off.

      Computer: A complicated electronic machine which can perform incredibly complex calculations at incomprehensible speeds. It was invented by Charles Babbage. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. A computer consists of a Central Processing Unit (C.P.U.) and a number of peripheral units. A computer does not do anything which a human being cannot do. Only that it does is much faster and accurately.

      Dewar Flask: is a double-walled glass flask, the inner surface of the outer vessel and the outer surface of the inner vessel of which have been silvered. The vacuum is created in the space between the two walls. This principle successfully prevents any interchange of temperature of the contents, because: (1) glass is a bad conductor (2) convection is not possible because there is vacuum between the walls and (3) a little radiation that takes place from the inner vessel is reflected by the inner surface of the outer wall.

      Daniel Cell: In this a rod of zinc is placed in dilute sulphuric acid contained in a cylindrical porous pot. The porous pot and its contents are placed in a large cylindrical copper vessel which also functions as positive pole of the cell. The space between the porous pot and the copper vessel is occupied by a solution of copper sulphate. The hydrogen produced by the action of the zinc on sulphuric acid travels towards the copper electrode. On delivering its electricity to the copper, it reacts with the copper sulphate turning copper out of the solution and forming sulphuric acid. The particles of copper liberated from the solution adhere to the outer copper vessel and thus the hydrogen is rendered harmless so far as polarisation is concerned.

      Diesel Engine: It is a particular type of internal combustion engine, known as compression ignition engine. The air inside the cylinder is usually compressed to over 500 lbs. per sq. in. and the temperature is attained up to 800°F. At this stage the oil is injected into the hot compressed air, which gets ignited immediately, thereby producing a continuous gas stream, which pushes the piston upward. And thereafter the engine gets into operation.

      Dynamo: The origin of the electricity in a dynamo is the transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy. It depends on the principle of electro-magnetic induction whereby a current is produced on traversing a magnetic field.

      Electric Bell: In an electric bell, there is one horse-shoe electromagnet, which plays an important role. A soft iron armature which is connected to a hammer H, is placed in front of the pole pieces of the electromagnet.
      One end of the coil of the electromagnet is connected to the terminal T2  while the other end is connected indirectly to the terminal T1 (i.e., through the soft iron armature which rests on the spring contact as shown in the diagram).
      On connecting the terminals T1 and T2  through battery, the electromagnet attracts the soft iron piece, and the hammer H in turn strikes the gong G, which produces a sound. Simultaneously, the contact between the spring and the screw breaks which demagnetises the electromagnet and the soft iron piece falls back to make up the circuit once again. The process is repeated again and again, which produces a continuous sound.

      Electric Lamp: The electric lamp is based on the principle that when an electric current is passed through a very fine metallic filament inside an evacuated glass bulb, it is heated so as to render the wire white hot or incandescent. The wire being very thin offers great resistance to the passage of the current so that considerable heat is developed and the temperature rises to make it luminous and thus emit light. The resistance generally increases as the temperature rises and soon an equilibrium is reached and there is no further rise of temperature, the amount of heat radiated by the filament being equal to that generated in it by the electric current. In order that the metallic filament shall not oxidise or rust, oxygen is removed from the bulb by pumping out air or generally some inert gas such as nitrogen or some other gas is made to fill the bulb.

      Electric Motor: An electric motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. A D.C. motor generally consists of several segments of a coil of a wire of a large number of turns wound over a soft iron cylinder called the armature. It is mounted on an axle about which it revolves and is placed between the poles of an electromagnet called the field magnets.  There are the commutator, brushes and the leads. It is based on the principle that a conductor carrying current experiences a force when placed in a magnetic field.

      Electro Cardio-gram (E.C.G.): It is actually a graphic picture of the heart-beat which the physician can make use of in the diagnosis. When the heart beats, its muscles contract and this causes a change in the electrical potential of the system. This change in potential is recorded on a paper by an electrical instrument known as electrocardiograph. The electrodes are connected to the two wrists and the left leg of the patient, and the machine acts like a galvanometer, the needle of which rests on a rotating drum covered with a paper, and thus the movements of the needle are recorded.

      Electromagnet: whenever an electric current passed through a coil of wire, a large number of turns, wound round a soft iron core, the iron core gets magnetised and it becomes a powerful magnet, and is known as an electromagnet. This magnetism is temporary and lasts so long as the current passes through the coil. Looking at the end of the soft iron bar if the current in the coil is clockwise in direction that end of the bar is South Pole; if the current is counter-clockwise, that end is a North Pole.

      Electron Microscope: It is just analogous to optical microscope in a way that beams of electrons are focused by magnetic lenses in a similar way to the focusing of light beams in the ordinary optical microscope. Germans were the pioneer to invent the electron microscope, during the year 1930. Direct  magnification up to 10,000 times is possible. Still higher magnification is possible with the Proton Microscope.

      FAX: Short for facsimile, it is a device that transmits pictures, drawings, text to a similar device at the receiving end, using telephone lines.

      Fibre Optics: It is a branch of physics based on the transmission of light through transparent fibres of glass or plastic. These optical fibres can carry light over distances ranging from a few inches or centimetres to more more than 100 miles (160 kilometres). Such fibres work individually or in bundles. Some individual fibres measure less than 0.004 millimetre in diameter.
      Optical fibres have a highly transparent core of glass or plastic surrounded by a covering called a cladding. Light impulses from a laser, a light bulb, or some other source enter one end of the optical fibre. As light travels through the core, it is typically kept inside it by the cladding. The cladding is designed to bend or reflect-inward-light rays that strike its inside surface. At the other end of the fibre, a detector, such as a photosensitive device or the human eye, receives the light.
      Uses of Optical Fibres: Optical fibres have a number of uses. Various industries use optical fibres to measure temperature, pressure, acceleration, and voltage. In fibre-optic communication systems, lasers transmit coded messages by flashing on and off at high speeds. The messages travel through optical fibres to interpreting devices that decode the messages, converting them back into the form of the original signal. Fibre-optic communication systems have a number of features that make them superior to systems that use traditional copper cables. For example, they have a much larger information-carrying capacity and are not subject to electrical interference. In addition, signals sent over long-distance fibre-optic cables need less amplification than do signals sent over copper cables of equal length.
      Optical fibres are well-suited for medical use. They can be made in extremely thin, flexible strands for insertion into the blood vessels, lungs, and other hollow parts of the body. Optical fibres are used in a number of techniques that enable physicians to look and work inside the body through tiny incisions.

      Fire Extinguisher: works by spraying continuous streams of carbon dioxide gas, which does not support combustion, and so acts as a fire extinguishing agent. Fire extinguisher is a medium size metallic cylinder fitted with a head-knob and a handle. At the time of emergency, the knob is struck against the floor, and carbon dioxide gas begins to evolve. Inside this cylinder a bottle of dilute solution of sulphuric acid is embedded in sodium carbonate powder. When the bottle is broken, sulphuric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to produce large quantities of the gas.

      Fusion Torch: is an instrument to be evolved by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It will use the power of the Hydrogen bomb to vaporise solid waste like junk-cars and bearcans, into their basic elements. The idea is based on the assumption that within a few years scientists will be able to harness the energy of the Hydrogen bomb—Controlled thermo-nuclear fusion—for use in electrical power plants.

      Geiger Counter: A G.M. counter or Geiger-Muller counter is a device used for detecting and/or counting nuclear radiation and particles.

      Heart Lung Machine: A machine which operates the function of the heart and lung at the time when the heart or lung is under operation. It directs the circulation of blood into body.

      Incandescent lamp: If a body of sufficiently high melting point say platinum wire is raised to a high temperature, some of the radiations coming out fall within the range termed “light”. The range comprises of radiation of short wave lengths and high frequencies. When such a body is heated it emits different colours at different temperatures, and ultimately, it gives dazzling white light at 1500°C and above. So the incandescent lamp consists of a metal of a high melting point (generally tungsten) enclosed in an evacuated glass globe and heated by an electric current. The filament is either in the form of an open spiral of straight wire or in the form of a ring of coiled wire. This lamp consumes about 1.4 watt per candle.

      Internal Combustion Engine: is an engine in which energy supplied by a burning fuel is directly transformed into mechanical energy by the controlled combustion of the fuel in an enclosed cylinder behind a piston. It is usually applied to the petrol- burning or Diesel oil-burning engine.

      Jet Engine: The essential components of the jet engine is the Gas turbine. It drives the rotary air compressor, which supplies compressed air to the combustion chamber, where a fuel like kerosene oil or gasoline enters and burns. The hot exploded gases are then expelled to the rear in a high velocity jet exhaust. It is the reaction of the plane on this jet of ejected gases that drives it forward.

      Jet Propulsion: It is now being commonly employed for propulsion of aircraft and the underlying principle is Newton’s third law of motion, that is, “to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”. Here a gas turbine drives the rotary air compressor which supplies compressed air to the combustion chamber, where the fuel-like gasoline enters and burns. The hot exploded gases are expelled to the rear in a high velocity jet exhaust. It is the reaction of the ‘plane on this jet of fastly ejected gases that drives it forward. It has made possible supersonic speeds.

      Difference between Rocket and Jet Engine: The essential difference between the propulsion of a jet engine and a rocket is that the gas turbines used in a jet engine require air to supply oxygen for the burning of the fuel. Rockets contain both fuel and an oxidizer to make them burn. Liquid oxygen is often used. So a jet engine would work only in the lower strata of the atmosphere where sufficient oxygen can be supplied by the air-compressors. The high velocity jet from a rocket is available for thrust in the upper atmosphere and even beyond the limits of our atmosphere. For rocket flights of course, the wings and rudders would be absolutely useless since there would be no air to exert force on them.

      LASER: or Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, LASER is a device that harnesses light to produce an intense beam of radiation of a very pure, single colour. The power of the beam can be low (as in a food store laser scanner which reads prices on packages) or high (as in lasers used to cut metals). The first laser was built in 1960.

      Lightning Conductor: It consists of a metal rod, the upper part of which is made up of copper with a number of conical points, the lower portion being an iron strip which extends deep into the earth’s moist layers. A lightning conductor protects the building from the effect of lightning in two ways: (i) The pointed conductors are charged by induction oppositely thus setting up an opposite wind which brings about a slow and silent discharge of the cloud. (ii) If however the lightning does strike, the discharge may be carried to the earth through the metal strip without doing any damage to the building. In ships also, lightning conductors are fixed to the masts and carried down through the ship’s keel-sheathing.

      Loud Speaker: It is a device for converting electrical energy into sound energy. There are various types of loud speakers but the commonest and most efficient type used now-a-days is the moving coil type. It is based on the principle that when a varying current is passed through a conductor in a magnetic field, the conductor is acted on by a variable force and if the current is oscillatory, the conductor is set into vibrations.

      Mariner’s Compass: is an apparatus which is used to guide the sailors. The needle always points north-south. It consists of a magnetised bar with a card bearing the directions viz., north, south, east etc. The card is correctly mounted above and firmly attached to the magnetised bar. When the magnet moves in relation to the ship’s course, the card automatically moves with it.

      Motor-Car: A motor-car usually consists of the following working parts: (i) Internal combustion engine (ii) Gear Box (iii) Battery (iv) Carburettor (v) Dynamo (vi) Radiator.
      Working: In order to operate a motor-car, the petrol from a container is ignited with the help of the battery. The vapours produced thereof are allowed to mix with air in the carburettor section, and thereafter the mixture is allowed to enter the cylinder of the internal combustion engine. The gases on expansion push the piston upwards thereby moving the crank-shaft, which in turn moves the main axle of the car. The motion of axle is controlled by the gear box.

      Periscope: It is a device for viewing objects which are above the eye-level of the observer, or are placed so that direct vision is obstructed. It is usually used by the crew of a submarine to survey the ships etc., on the surface of the sea while the submarine is under water. It also enables sailors to observe objects on the other side of an obstacle without exposing themselves. It consists of a long tube, at each end of which is a right-angled prism, so situated that, by total internal reflection at the longest faces, light is turned through an angle of 90° by each prism. The light from a viewed object thus enters the observer’s eye in a direction parallel to, but below, the original direction of the object.

      Phytotron: is a big machine costing two million dollars and capable of producing any type of climate to order. It has been installed in Duke University, Durham, North Carolina to facilitate studies of environmental biology—particularly growing of plants under varying climatic conditions. The machine can duplicate any set of climatic conditions from the tropical to the Arctic in the brick and glass building in which it is housed. It has six specially equipped green houses and 40 controlled plant chambers. It is a useful device for the study of environmental biology.

      Radar: precisely means: Radio, Angle, Detection And Range. It is one of the interesting developments of wireless waves the principle of which has been utilised in the radio location technique or popularly known as RADAR. It is an electrical device used for the detection and location of the aircraft with the help of radio frequency waves.
      Working: Wireless waves having very short wavelengths are set free in the shape of concentrated beam to flood or cover the required area of the sky. An aircraft entering that particular area is supposed to intercept the spreading waves, and an echo is reflected back to the transmitting station. In addition to detection of the aircraft, its distance from a particular place can also be calculated by recording the time taken by the wireless waves in travelling back. A discrimination between the aircraft of an enemy and a friendly nation can be made by understanding the nature of Echo.

      Refrigerator: It is an apparatus or chamber for producing and maintaining a low temperature. The principle employed in the working of a refrigerator is that heat is absorbed by a liquid as it evaporates, thus producing a cooling effect. The substance commonly employed is liquid ammonia sulphur dioxide.

      Rocket: The underlying principle of the flight of a rocket is Newton’s Third Law of Motion viz., To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. It is a self-propelled vehicle which depends upon the force provided by a fuel carried along with it. As the fuel burns, products of combustion are forced out at terrific speed at the rear of the vehicle and ejection imparts motion to it in the forward direction. It has its own oxygen supply for burning the fuel and therefore, there is no dependence on air for combustion or propulsion.

      Rocket Bomb: If a rocket engine is used as a missile to carry an explosive charge it is termed as a Rocket Bomb. The principle of a rocket engine is the same as that of a jet engine but unlike the jet engine it carries its supply of oxygen with it to burn the fuel and is thus independent of the oxygen of the air. The hot gases formed in the combustion of the fuel are led through a nozzle. If a quantity of gas of mass m leaves the nozzle in time t with a velocity v, the force exerted on the mass of gas and hence the force also on the rocket = mv/t. Such a rocket bomb can be hurled from a place outside our atmosphere.

      Safety Lamp, Davy’s: It is based on the principle of rapid conduction of heat by a metal. In the miner’s safety lamp, the flame of the lamp is surrounded by glass and above this is a space surrounded by five copper gauzes. Inflammable gases which may be present in the mine can pass through and burn inside the lamp. The copper gauze conducts away the heat so rapidly and effectively that the ignition point of the gas outside the gauze is never reached and thus the possibility of an explosion is avoided.

      Seismograph: It is an instrument used for the registration of earth tremors, and consists of principle of a heavy pendulum system, the supporting framework following the ground movements and the bob remaining at rest on account of its large inertia thereby setting up a relative movement between the two parts of the seismograph. This movement is recorded with the help of electromagnetic transducers, galvanometers and electronic amplifiers. In order to record the displacements completely, usually three seismographs are made to set at one particular station.

      Sound Barrier: Before the advent of aircraft with supersonic speeds, it was apprehended that when the speeds of the aircraft and sound were equal, the compressional waves produced by the flight of the aircraft will be unable to get away and will give rise to a sound barrier which will offer a considerable resistance to the motion of the aircraft and huge structural stresses and strains will be called into play attended by great noise likely to react unfavourably on the crew. But no such effects have been observed now that the speed of the jet-propelled aircraft and rockets far exceeds that of sound.

      Spring Balance: A Spring Balance is used for measuring weights. The principle involved is that the stretching in the case of a Spring is proportional to the load suspended and if a load of 1 kilogram produces a stretching of 1 cm, a load of two kilograms will stretch it by 2 cm and so on. The spring is held at the upper end and load is suspended by a hook attached to the lower end with a pointer attached to the upper end of the spring which moves over a scale.

      Steam Engine: is a machine utilizing steam power through a device by virtue of which heat is converted into mechanical energy. The steam engine has two main parts: (i) boiler, and (ii) proper engine. It consists essentially of a cylinder in which a piston is moved backwards and forwards by the expansion of steam under pressure.

      Stereoscope: It is an optical device that makes photographs seem to have three dimensions. An ordinary camera sees things only in a flat plane and never in the round. But if two cameras set several inches apart photograph the same object simultaneously, and if these two photographs are then mounted side by side and viewed through a combination of lenses and prisms in such a manner that the two units enter the two eyes without strain, the resulting mental picture (image) appear to have three dimensions. Everything is seen in the round, the way our two eyes normally view things. These are employed in aerial survey and in astronomical telescopes.

      Submarine: may be regarded as a ship having a variable and controllable specific gravity. It is equipped with large ballast tanks (in the low, the middle and the stern of the ship) into which water can be admitted through valves so that the vessel can be made to sink when desired. On the water being expelled again by pumps worked by compressed air, the ship rises to the surface. Inside the water it is the electric motors which drive it forward and there are horizontal rudders (or hydroplanes) which are fitted on both sides of the vessel so that by tilting them the vessel is gradually submerged, the same rudders help to maintain it at a desired depth of submergence.

      Tape Recorder: It is an instrument which converts sound waves into electrical impulses which are recorded as a wavy groove on the tape.  When it is required to produce the voice, the electrical impulses are again converted into sound waves.

      Telephone: It is a device to produce sound to enable two persons to talk to each other from distance. The circuit, which is closed when the line is connected, consists of a transmitter and a receiver connected by an electrical conductor. The transmitter which is usually a carbon microphone causes variable electrical impulses to flow through the circuit. In the telephone-receiver, these impulses flow through a pair of coils of wire wound upon soft iron pole-pieces which are attached to the poles of a magnet. An iron diaphragm near these coils experiences variable pulls and vibrates so as to produce sounds corresponding to those made into the microphone.

      Telephotography: is a process by which the transmission of moving objects is made by radio from one place to another. A succession of still pictures is transmitted at the rate of twenty-five per second which gives an illusion of continuous movement. The television camera changes the light pattern of the transmitted scene into a series of electrical signals which modulate a very high frequency radio carrier wave. The received signals are changed into light variations and reassembled on the screen of a cathode-ray tube at the receiver.

      Teleprinter: It is an instrument which prints automatically messages sent from one place to another. It consists of a telegraph transmitter with a type-writter key-board by which characters of a message are transmitted electrically in combination of 5 units, being recorded similarly by the receiving instrument. The receiving instrument then translates the matter mechanically into printed characters.

      Telescope: A simple refracting astronomical telescope is an optical arrangement for seeing very distant objects. Two convex lenses are mounted at the ends of two tubes so that by sliding one tube within the other, the distance between the lenses can be changed and the images thereby can be focused correctly. The lens at the larger end of the telescope is of considerable focal length and is called the object glass and a smaller lens of short focal length is called the eye-piece. Parallel rays proceeding from a distant object form its real image at the principal focus of the object glass. The position of the eye-piece is adjusted so that a magnified virtual image of it is seen. Since the real image is inverted, this virtual image is also upside down—a fact of little importance in astronomical work. For viewing terrestrial objects, the real image formed by the object glass is re-inverted by another convex lens before it is magnified by the eye-piece.

      Television: It is the transmission of images of moving objects by radio waves. The scene to be transmitted or its image on a photo-mosaic inside an iconoscope camera is scanned with the help of a fine beam of light traversing horizontally and vertically. The reflected pulses in the former case are picked up by photoelectric cells which convert light energy into varying electric currents, or in the latter case, the photo-mosaic with the help of suitable electrical circuits generates varying currents. These currents are amplified with the help of valve amplifiers and are then made to modulate the carrier waves from a transmitter. At the receiving station, the electrical vibrations are reconverted into light waves which are collected on the fluorescent screen of a cathode ray oscilloscope at the same rate with which they are generated at the sending station. With the help of the property of persistence of vision possessed by the eye, we can see on the screen an exact photograph of the transmitted scene.

      Thermometer, Clinical: A clinical thermometer is used to note the temperature of a human body and has graduations from 65°F to 100°F. It consists of a thin glass bulb connected with a thick walled capillary tube known as the stem. There is a constriction in the bore near the bulb. When the thermometer is placed below the tongue (or in the arm-pit) of a person, mercury in the bulb gets heated and expands. The force of expansion pushes the mercury past the constriction, which thus rises into the stem. When thermometer is removed, the temperature falls and mercury contracts. But the level remains intact as the thread is now broken at the constriction. The temperature can thus be conveniently read. The mercury can be again brought into the bulb by giving it a slight jerk.

      Thermos Flask (Vacuum Flask): It is used to keep hot liquids hot and cold liquids cold. The principles involved in its construction are: (i) It is made of glass which is a bad conductor of heat; (ii) As there is vacuum between the walls, convection is not possible; (iii) The outer face of the inner vessel is silvered, so there is very little radiation as polished surfaces are bad radiators. The inner surface of the outer vessel is polished which serves as a good reflector of any small radiation from the inner surface.

      Tokamak T-3: is a machine designed by Russians to harness fusion reaction for peaceful purposes. A fusion reaction takes place under extreme pressure and temperatures such as exist in the core of the sun. In this machine such conditions are created by generating a hot gas or plasma. The Russians are already at work on an improved version of the machine which should achieve self-supporting generation of fusion-energy.

      Transformer: It is an apparatus by which the voltage of an alternating current is made higher (step-up Transformer) or lower (step-down Transformer) or its frequency. Transformer is made up of two coils, one of a small number of turns of thick wire and the other of a great number of turns of thin wire. A current going through the first of these causes an induction current of higher voltage in the second. If the main current goes through the second one, induction current of a lower voltage is generated in the first coil.

      Transistor: It is an active component of an electric circuit which may be used as an amplifier or detector. It consists of a small block of a semi-conducting material to which at least three electrical contacts are made, two of them being closely spaced rectifying contacts generally and one ohmic or loose (non-rectifying) contact. Transistors are now being used in radio receivers, in electronic computers, in electronic control equipments, in place of vacuum tubes where the required voltages are not too high. They are much smaller than their vacuum tube counterparts, consume less  power and have no filaments to burn out.

      Ultrasonoscope: It is a compact, diagnostic instrument designed to measure and use ultrasonic sound (with a frequency higher than 20,000 cycles per second, beyond human hearing). It emits brief bursts of ultrasound which are reflected back by bone, fluid or tissue in the body and give an “echo-gram”. The instrument can be helpful in detecting deep-seated brain tumours, defective heart valves and abnormal growths.

      Videophone: The world’s first commercial videophone service was started for limited experimental use in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is as much of an advance on the ordinary telephone as the addition of sound and colour was to the movies. The visual dimension also increases the functional utility of this communication apparatus, but the trouble so far has been in designing and making videophones which will be cheap enough to be installed and used by thousands of people.

    Prominent Scientists

    • Prominent Scientists

      Abdul Kalam, Dr A.P.J.: is credited with advancement of missile technology in India. He was honoured with Bharat Ratna award on November 26, 1997. He is known as “father of India’s Missile Technology”. Elected 11th President of India.

      Alvares, Luis W.: is an American physicist teaching at the University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1968 for an important breakthrough he made in elementary physics in 1960 when he discovered a new resonance particle—a discovery that shattered the then prevailing notions as to how matter was built.

      Anfinsen, Dr Christian B.: of the U.S.A.’s National Institute of Health, Bethseda, Maryland was one of the three co-winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1972.

      Archimedes: Greek mathematician (born in Sicily) who lived about 250 B.C. is known for the discovery of the Archimedes’ principle viz., The volume of any insoluble solid can be found by noting its loss of weight when immersed in water. He is also credited with the invention of Archimedean Screw, a cylindrical device for raising water.

      Arrow, Kenneth, J.: of Harvard University, U.S.A. is co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Economics, 1972 with Sir John Richard Hicks of Oxford University. The two men are known for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium and welfare theories.

      Aryabhatta: (A.D. 476-520) after whom India’s first scientific satellite has been named, was a great Indian astronomer and mathematician. Among his important contributions are the recognition of the importance of the mov ement of the earth round the sun, determination of the physical parameters of various celestial bodies, such as diameter of the earth and the moon. He laid the foundations of algebra and was responsible for pointing out importance of “zero”.

      Avogadro, Amedeo: (1776-1856) Italian physicist; founder of Avogadro’s hypothesis: “Equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure, contain equal  number of molecules.” He also defined a molecule.

      Bardeen, Prof John: of the University of Illinois (U.S.A.) is co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics, 1972 (with Prof Leon N. Cooper and Prof John Robert Schrieffer) for researches into the “theory of super-conductivity” usually called the BCS theory.

      Barnard, Christian: South African surgeon who shot into world news in December 1967 when he completed the first heart transplant operation on Louis Washkansky.

      Beadle, Dr G.: American scientist awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1958 for his work concerning the actual basis of heredity—the way in which characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another.

      Becquerel, Henri: (1852-1908) French physicist known for his discovery in 1896 of Becquerel rays, the first indications of radio-activity; these rays were later named gamma rays. He shared Nobel Prize for Physics with the Curies in 1903.

      Berzelius, J.J: (1779-1848) Swedish Chemist, known for introduction of chemical shorthand symbols and atomic weights.

      Bessemer, Sir Henry: (1813-1898) English engineer. He invented the process for the manufacture of steel known after his name.

      Bhabha, Dr H.J.: (1909-66) Indian scientist. He published important papers on Cosmic Rays and Quantum Theory. He was professor at the Indian Science Institute, Bangalore; Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; President, Indian Science Congress in 1951 and presided at the Atoms for Peace Conference held at Geneva in 1956. He had many significant researches in structure of atom and contributed largely to the setting up of atomic reactors at Trombay (Mumbai).

      Bhagvantam, Dr S.: is an eminent Indian scientist who has made a rich contribution to research in radio astronomy and cosmic rays. He has published more than 150 research papers and several books. He retired in October 1969 as the Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Defence, and Director General of the Defence Research Development Organisation. He is an old-time associate of Sir C.V. Raman.

      Bhaskaracharya: Born in A.D. 1114, he was almost the last great Hindu mathematician and astronomer until modern times. He wrote Sidhanta-Siromani in 1150  which consisted of two mathematical and two astronomical parts. Bhaskara anticipated the modern theory on the convention of signs (minus by minus makes plus, minus by plus makes minus). He also anticipated Kepler’s method for determining the surface and volume of sphere.

      Bhatnagar, Dr Shanti Swarup: (1895-1955) great Indian scientist. He was Director of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R.). A chain of National Laboratories has been established in the country due to his able organisation and unbounded energy.

      Bohr, Neils: (born 1885) Danish Physicist. He was awarded Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He greatly extended the theory of atomic structure of devising an atomic model in 1913 and evolving theory of nuclear structure; assisted America in atom bomb research.

      Borlaug, Norman Ernest: American agricultural scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1970. He was one of those who laid the groundwork of the Green Revolution.

      Bose, Sir J.C.: (1858-1937) Eminent Indian physicist and Botanist; founder of Bose Research Institute, Calcutta. Inventor of crescograph which is used to magnify movements made by plants.
      Bose, S.N.: Eminent Indian scientist who won fame by expounding the Bose-Einstein theory, which is concerned in detection of a group of nuclear particles—named after him ‘Boson’ in recognition of his contribution to the subject; contributed to Plank’s law. Professor of physics, Calcutta University; nominated member to the Council of States. Awarded Padma Vibhushan in 1954. He died on February 4, 1974.

      Boyle, Robert: (1627-1691) Irish natural philosopher; one of the founders of modern chemistry and Boyle’s law: “Temperature remaining constant, volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely as its pressure.”

      Bragg, Sir William: (1862-1942) British physicist known for researches on the behaviour of crystals with regard to X-rays incident upon them. Author of the book: “Atomic Structure of Minerals”.

      Cavendish, Henry: (1731-1810) English physicist and chemist; he discovered properties of hydrogen in 1766 and identified it as an element.

      Chadwick, Sir James: (1891-1974) British physicist. He discovered the particle in an atomic nucleus which became known as the neutron, because it has no electric charge.

      Chandrasekhar, Dr Subramanian: He was a scientist of Indian origin settled in the U.S.A., who shared the 1983  Nobel Prize for physics with an American, William Fowler. He was one of the most outstanding astrophysicist of the world.
      His theory of stellar evolution—the birth and death of stars—is more than 30 years old. When he first propounded his finding that old stars just collapse and disappear in the light of denser stars of low light, the world’s top-flight astronomers laughed at him and rejected his theory. A disappointed Dr Chandrasekhar left Trinity, Cambridge, to pursue his research in the University of Chicago. Over the next two decades the “Chandrasekhar Limit” became an intrinsic part of text-books on advanced astrophysics. Global recognition and awards poured in, and the 1983 Nobel Prize tops a remarkable career spanning almost half a century.

      Charak: (c.A.D. 80-180) was a court physician to Kushan king Kanishka. His writings are invaluable in the study of Hindu medicine.

      Charles, Jacques Alexander Cesar: (1746-1823) a French scientist of great repute. He was the first to make a balloon ascension with hydrogen. He is known for his work on the effect of temperature on the volume of gases.

      Clarke, Arthur C.: He is known for his suggestion of the concept of Geostationary Orbit.

      Clark Maxwell, James: (1831-79) British physicist. His theoretical work prepared the way for wireless telegraphy and telephony. His principal works include: Perception of Colour, Colour Blindness, Theory of Heat, Electricity and Magnetism, Matter and Motion.

      Claude, Albert: is a biologist of Luxembourg who shared the 1974 Nobel Prize in Medicine. His field of research relates to causes and treatment of cancer.

      Columbus, Christopher: (1446-1506) A well-known Italian navigator set out on his first voyage in 1492; he discovered West Indies Islands, Cuba and Bahamas; he also discovered South America in 1498.

      Cooper, Leon N.: Of the Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (U.S.A.) was one of the three co-winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1972 for researches into the theory of super-conductivity.

      Copernicus: (1413-1543) A prominent astronomer of Poland who discovered the “Solar System”.

      Cornforth, John Warcup: co-winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Chemistry is a deaf professor. He is an Australian living in England. His chief distinction is mapping out the formation of cholesterols which he calls “a great discovery” and contains the key to, for instance, sex hormones.

      Curie, Madame Marie: (1867-1934) Polish physicist and chemist; famous for her discovery of radium was awarded Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911 and shared Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 with her husband and Becquerel.

      Dalton, John: (1766-1844) British scientist. He was founder of the Atomic Theory and law of Multiple Proportions.

      Darwin, Charles: (1809-82) was the British scientist who discovered the principle of natural selection. His famous work is “The Origin of Species”.

      Davy, Sir Humphrey: (1771-1829) British chemist. First to apply electric current for the isolation of metals. Studied anaesthetic action of nitrous oxide, properties of chlorine and alkali metals.

      Debreu, Gerard: Gerard Debreu of the University of California at Berkeley, who has been awarded the 1983 Nobel memorial prize in economics is known for his research on market equilibrium in which he “incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory”.
      Mr Debreu has expanded on a mathematical model designed by the two men in the early 1950s that confirmed the logic of Adam Smith’s “theory of general equilibrium” in which prices supply and demand tend to reach a balance within a free market economy.

      Delbrueck, Dr Max: is a German-born American doctor working at the California Institute of Technology. He was one of the three American co-winners of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1969 for discoveries in molecular genetics.

      De Vries: is known for Mutation theory.

      Dhanvantri: a great physician during the reign of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375-413 A.D.).

      Dhawan, Prof Satish: He is former Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Under his dynamic leadership India entered Space Age by launching “Aryabhata”, a scientific satellite, into space on April 19, 1975.

      Edelman, Dr Gerald Maurice: of U.S.A. is co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1972. He is known for researches into the chemical structure of blood-proteins or antibodies which shield the human body against infection. He shared the prize with Dr Rodney Robert Porter of Oxford. The two Nobel-laureates were able to break the  giant molecules formed by antibodies into their component sections.

      Edison, Thomas Alva: (1847-1931) American inventor of Dutch-Scottish parentage. He started life as a newsboy and then a telegraph operator. His inventions include: phonograph, the incandescent lamp, a new type of storage battery, an early form of cinematography etc.

      Einstein, Prof Albert: (1879-1955) was German-Swiss world-famous scientist known for his theory of relativity. He was awarded Nobel Prize for his work on photoelectric effect.

      Faraday, Michael: (1791-1867) An eminent English scientist; showed great prominence in the field of electromagnetism; discovered the laws of electrolysis and wrote a number of useful books on the subject.

      Fleming, Alexander: (1881-1955) British bacteriologist. His notable discovery was lysozyme (1922), followed by penicillin (1929)—an antibiotic drug.

      Fleming, Sir John Ambrose: (1849-1945) British physicist and engineer who was pioneer in the development of the telephone, electric light and radio.

      Fraunhofer: German physicist. He gained prominence on the researches of ‘Light’ while performing spectrum-analysis of Sunlight; he discovered the spectrum to be crossed with some indifferent black lines. And the lines are so named as Fraunhofer Lines.

      Freud, Sigmund: (1856-1939) originator of psycho-analysis, born of Jewish parents. Works: The Interpretation of Dreams; The Psychopathology of Every-day Life; The Ego and the Id; Civilization and Its Discontents.

      Gabor, Dr Dennis: Who won the 1971 Nobel Prize award for Physics is a 71-year old British electrical engineer working as a scientist in the U.S.A. He was cited for his “invention in development of the holographic method”—three dimensional photography. Dr Gabor was the 16th Briton to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He was born and educated in Hungary. He later worked as research engineer in Germany and came to join the staff of the Imperial College in London in 1949. He invented holography in the late forties. But the science became fully developed with the coming of the laser in 1960. A holographic image is so lifelike that a viewer can see around things in a holograph by moving his head just as he looks around the real object.

      Galileo: (1564-1642) Italian scientist. He was professor of mathematics. His view that all falling bodies, great or small, descend with equal velocity, made him unpopular with the orthodox scientists. He improved telescope and with it was the first man to see the satellites of Jupiter.

      Gell-Mann, Prof Murray: was the recipient of the 1969 Nobel Prize for Physics. He is a teacher in the California Institute of Technology. Born in New York in 1929, Prof Gell-Mann has been the leading theorist in elementary particle research for the last 15 years. He was the 28th American to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in which the U.S.A. now leads. The Nobel Prize was given to him for “his classification of elementary particles and their interactions”.

      Goddard, Robert H.: was an American who mentioned the possibility of shooting a rocket to the moon in a paper entitled “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes” published by him in 1919. By 1926 he had put some of his ideas into practice. He is looked upon as one of the pioneers of space research.

      Graham, Thomas: (1805-1914) Scottish chemist called the “father of colloidal chemistry”. He did remarkable work on diffusion of substances in solution.

      Heisenberg: is known for his theory of Uncertainty Principle.

      Hahn, Otto: was a German pioneer of nuclear research. He won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1944. It was Hahn who had proved in 1938 that atomic fission can be achieved by bombarding uranium with neutrons. The discovery revolutionised atomic science.

      Hall, Charles Martin: (1863-1914) American chemist who discovered the modern method of extraction of aluminium by electrolysis of bauxite in 1886.

      Harvey, William: (1578-1675) English physician who discovered the circulation of blood.

      Herzberg, Dr Gehard: has been awarded the 1971 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for his researches in atomic and molecular structures, particularly free radicals. He is the first Canadian to win a Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

      Holley, Robert: Co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1968, belongs to Cornell. His researches into the genetic code and its function in building protein led to the discovery of the complete structure of a transfer RNA molecule and the way it works.

      Hopkins, Sir Frederick Gowland: He was an eminent English biochemist famous for his important work on proteins and vitamins. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1929 for the discovery of Vitamin D.

      Hoyle, Fred: is a British scientist and science-fiction writer who won the £ 1,000 Kalinga Prize in 1968.

      Jenner, Edward: (1749-1823) Eminent English physician who discovered the vaccination system of alleviating small pox.

      Josephson, Dr Brian: is a British scientist who co-shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for physics for “his theoretical predictions of the properties of a super-current through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as Josephson effects”.

      Joshi, Prof S.S.: He has done commendable work on physical and chemical reactions under electric discharge on active nitrogen; colloids; hydrogen peroxide; permanganates and  a phenomenon called “Joshi Effect”.

      Joule, James Prescott: (1874-1937) a great English physicist who first demonstrated that mechanical energy can be converted into heat.

      Kepler, Johannes: (1571-1630) German astronomer. He discovered 3 laws of planetary motion that bear his name viz., (1) The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the foci; (2) the Radius vector of each planet describes equal areas in equal times; (3) The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.
      Kepler had evolved a set of laws governing man in space with rare prescience. In a kind of allegory, he referred to the dangers of solar radiation, the need to overcome gravitational resistance, gravitational capture of spacecraft by the moon etc. What he wrote nearly 360 years ago was, however, little understood and his family was persecuted for it. His mother had to die in jail having been condemned as a witch.

      Khorana Hargobind: who shared with two others the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine is an Indian by birth and an American by domicile. He deciphered the genetic code and later created an artificial gene.

      Krishnan, Dr K.S.: (born 1898) collaborated with Sir C.V. Raman in the discovery of “Raman Effect”. President, Indian Science Congress, 1949; delegate to several international scientific conferences; Director, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi.

      Lavoisier, A.L.: (1743-1794) French chemist; established law of Indestructibility of Matter, Composition of Water and Air.

      Lister, Joseph: (1827-1912) British surgeon. He was the first to use antiseptic treatment for wounds; introduced antiseptic surgery.

      Lodge, Sir Oliver Joseph: (1851-1940) British physicist. He is chiefly known for his researches on radiation, and the relation between matter and ether.

      Lovell, Sir Bernard: He is professor of Radio-Astronomy in the University of Manchester and is also Director of the Jodrell Bank Observatory. He remains very much in the news for tracking space-ships.

      Lysenko: Author of Agro-biology, Lysenko gained fame as a Soviet geneticist. In 1948, he declared the Mendelian theory obsolete and erroneous.

      Marconi: (1873-1937) Italian scientist; pioneer in wireless telegraphy and radio.

      Max Planck: He was a German theoretical physicist who formulated the quantum theory which revolutionized physics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918.

      Mendel, Johann Gregory: (1822-84) Austrian monk and naturalist whose discovery of certain principles of inheritance (heredity) is of deep significance in the study of biology.

      Mendeleef, D.I.: (1834-1901) a Russian chemist, founder of periodic law and famous for the development of petroleum and other industries in Russia.

      Meyer, Victor: (1848-1897) discovered a method to determine the molecular weights of volatile substances.

      Morley, Edward William: (1818-1923) American chemist and physicist best known for his work in determining the composition of water by weight.

      Moseley, Henry G.: (1887-1915) British physicist who did valuable work on atomic structure, and in 1913, devised the series of atomic numbers.

      Nagarjuna: the renowned chemist of Buddhist era whose works are mostly preserved in  China and Tibet. A great Philosopher and Chemist. He makes a mention of crucibles, distillation stills, sublimation, colouring process, alloying of metals, extraction of copper and use of many metallic oxides in medicines. About chemistry he said, “As long as the science of chemistry prevails, let hunger, pain and poverty not torment men.”

      Nag-Chowdhury, B.D.: an eminent Indian nuclear physicist, known all over the world.

      Narlikar, J.V.: Indian scientist; co-author of Hoyle-Narlikar Theory of continuous creation. The theory of which he is co-author has been hailed as supplying some important missing links in Einstein’s theory of Relativity. The new theory of gravitation propounded by both the scientists, Narlikar and Hoyle, shows that gravitation is always attractive and there is no gravitational repulsions.

      Newton, Sir Isaac: (1642-1727) was the British natural philosopher. He discovered binomial theorem; the differential and integral calculus. He expounded the universal law of gravitation. He is author of Principia Mathematica.

      Nirenberg, Dr Marshall: is a U.S. molecular biologist who shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Dr Robert Holley and Dr Hargobind Khorana. Nirenberg is the author of a very simple but ingenious experiment which helped a great deal in clarifying the general character of the genetic code.

      Oberth, Hermann: is a Rumanian-German Professor who is credited with establishing the experimental basis of modern rocketry. In 1923, the publication of his book, “The Rocket into Interplanetary Space” aroused great interest in space travel.

      Ohm, George Simon: (1787-1854) physicist and mathematician; discovered the law known as Ohm’s Law.

      Onsager, Lars: is a U.S. Professor who became a Nobel laureate in 1968 by winning the prize for Chemistry “for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name which are fundamental for the thermo-dynamics of irreversible processes”.

      Paraceisus: (1493-1541) a Swiss mystic and chemist. He was the first to employ laudanum and antimony in Pharmacy.

      Parson, Sir Charles: (1854-1931) British  engineer;  inventor of Parson steam turbine.

      Pasteur, Louis: (1822-95) He was a French chemist who discovered the causes of fermentation in alcohol and milk and founded the Pasteur Institute in 1888. He made researches in silkworm disease, anthrax, and hydrophobia.

      Pauling, Linus: American bio-chemist. He applied the quantum theory to chemistry and was awarded Nobel Prize (1954) for his contribution to the electrochemical theory of valency.

      Porter, Dr Rodney Robert: is Professor of Biochemistry in Oxford University. Dr Porter is known for his discoveries relating to the chemical structure of antibodies.

      Priestley, Joseph: (1733-1804) British Chemist; discovered oxygen and methods of collecting gases.

      Pythagoras: is known as the father of Geometry.

      Rainwater, James: of the U.S.A. who co-shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physics is known for the development of the theory that atomic nucleus is not always spherical but can also be egg-shaped which has no immediate practical meaning but is extremely essential to scientists.

      Ramanna, Dr Raja: former Director of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre at Trombay. He was one of the Indian scientists associated with staging India’s first nuclear blast at Pokhran on May 18, 1974.

      Raman, Sir C.V.: (1888-1970) Eminent Indian Scientist (F.R.S.) National Professor of Physics and founder Director of Raman Research Institute, Bangalore. He was awarded Nobel Prize for his discovery of ‘Raman Effect’ (Feb 28, 1928). His work on study of crystal structure is of unique importance. Feb 28 is celebrated every year as National Science Day.

      Ramanujan, Srinivas: (1887-1920) Indian mathematician who contributed to the theory of numbers, theory of partitions, and the theory of continued fractions.

      Ramsay, Sir William: (1852-1916) English chemist who discovered helium and later on neon, argon in collaboration with Rayleigh and others. He was awarded Nobel Prize in 1904.
      Rao, Prof U. Ramachandra: is the Director of Indian Scientific Satellite Project (ISSP) at Peenya near Bangalore.

      Ray, Sir P.C.: (1861-1944) founder of Indian Chemical Society and Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works Ltd., and author of ‘Hindu Chemistry’. His work about nitrous acid and its salts deserves special mention.

      Richards, T.W.: He was Prof of Chemistry at Harvard University in U.S.A. He did notable  work in the accurate determination of atomic weights and was awarded Nobel Prize in 1916.

      Roger Bacon: (1214-1294) He was inventor of Gun Powder and founder of experimental science; man of remarkable gifts and inventive power.

      Rontgen, W. Konrad: (1845-1923) German physicist. He discovered X-rays, also called Rontgen rays. He was awarded the first Nobel Prize in 1901 for discovery of X-Rays.

      Ross, Ronald: (1857-1932) leading British physician who discovered the cause of Malaria; awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1902.

      Rutherford, Daniel: (1749-1819) a Scottish scientist who is given the credit for the discovery of nitrogen.

      Rutherford, Lord: (1871-1937) won a Nobel Prize for his work on structure of atom and radio-activity.

      Ryle, Sir Martin: of the U.K. who shared the 1974 Nobel Prize in Physics is known for the development of “aperture synthesis” technique designed to identify stellar objects through radio signals.

      Saha, Dr Meghnad: (1893-1956) late Palit Prof of Physics, University College of Science and Technology, Calcutta University—well known for his researches in nuclear physics, cosmic rays, spectrum analysis and other branches of theoretical physics.

      Sanger, Dr Frederik: British scientist awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1958 for his work in determining the composition of the insulin molecule. By his discovery he has put science a step forward towards knowing how disease attacks the human body. In 1980, he became only the fourth person ever to be awarded a second Nobel Prize.

      Sarabhai, Dr Vikram A.: former Chairman of India’s Atomic Energy Commission and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) died on December 30, 1971. Dr Sarabhai was an eminent physicist mainly interested in the astrophysical implications of Cosmic Ray Time Variations.

      Sen, P.K. (Dr): is the Indian surgeon who performed Asia’s first heart transplant operation in Mumbai.

      Simpson, Sir James Young: (1811-70) British physicist who was largely instrumental in the introduction of chloroform as an anaesthetic in 1847.

      Soddy, Frederick: (1877-1956) British physical chemist. He was a pioneer of research into atomic disintegration. He coined the term “isotopes”;  did classic work on radioactivity.

      Solvay, Earnest: (1838-1922) Belgian chemist known for devising a process known after his name for manufacture of sodium carbonate.

      Susruta: was a fourth century Hindu surgeon and physician. He wrote an important  book on medicine and also a thesis on the medical properties of garlic.

      Sutherland, Dr Earl W.: was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1971.  He is credited with the discovery that the hormones in the human body produce another substance known as cyclic A.M.P., which activates them and controls the body’s cells. He has demonstrated that changes in the level of cyclic A.M.P. in the body can influence its disease-resisting capacity. This discovery opens up new vistas for the development of drugs that can treat diseases which have so far been regarded as incurable.

      Teller, Edward (Dr): is a U.S. nuclear scientist who has played a major role in developing the hydrogen bomb. He is in fact known as the “father of the H-bomb”.

      Thomson, Sir J.J.: (1856-1940) British physicist. He discovered the electron which inaugurated the electrical theory of the  atom. He is regarded as the founder of modern physics.

      Tsiolkovsky: was a Russian teacher who in 1903 published a  treatise presenting remarkably accurate calculations on rocket dynamics and space-travel. He is looked upon as the earliest among the pioneers who laid the foundations of space exploration. The Russians call him the “Father of Rocketry”.

      Varahmihira: (505-587) was a distinguished Indian astronomer, mathematician and philosopher. He was one of the nine gems of the court of king Vikramaditya.

      Verne, Jules: (1828-1905) French science-fiction writer was author of “From the Earth to the Moon” published in 1865. The book carried a more or less accurate prediction of the launching and flight of Apollo-8.

      Volta, A.: (1745-1827) Italian physicist and pioneer of electrical science; invented voltaic pile, the electrophorus and electroscope. The volt is named after him.

      Voronoff, S.: Russian scientist best known for his method of preventing or delaying senility by grafting healthy animal glands, into the human body.

      Watson and Crick: known for DNA double helix.

      Watson-Watt, Sir Robert: British physicist. He developed radar.

      Watt, James: (1736-1819) was Scottish engineer. He invented steam engine.

      Yukawa, Dr H.: (born 1907) predicted a new particle meson which holds the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus. He is the first Japanese to win the Nobel Prize in Physics (1949).

    7 Wonders of the World

    7 Wonders of the World
    1. Pyramids of Egypt
    2. Great Wall of China
    3. Colosseum of Rome (Italy)
    4. Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy)
    5. Cata-combs of Alexandria
    6. The Taj Mahal at Agra (India)
    7. Angkor Vat temple in Kampuchia

    Currencies of the World

    Currencies of the World 

    Sri Lankan rupee
    Sri Lankan rupee (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
    1. Afghanistan - Afgani
    2. Argentina - Peso
    3. Australia - Australian Dollar
    4. Austria - Schiling
    5. Bangladesh - Taka
    6. Belgium - Belgian Franc
    7. Bhutan - Ngultrum
    8. Brazil - Cruzeir
    9. Bulgaria - Levi
    10. Burma - Kyat
    11. Canada - Canadian Dollar
    12. Sri Lanka - Sri Lankan Rupee
    13. Taiwan - Taiwan Dollar
    14. China - Yuan
    15. Chile - Peso
    16. Czechoslovakia - Koruna
    17. Denmark - Krone
    18. Egypt - Egyptian Pound
    19. Ethiopia - Birr
    20. Finland - Markka
    21. France - French Franc
    22. Germany - Deutsche Mark (DM)
    23. Ghana - Cedi
    24. Hong Kong - Hong Kong Dollar
    25. Hungary - Florint
    26. India - Rupee
    27. Indonesia - Rupiah
    28. Iran - Iranian Rial
    29. Iraq - Iraqi Dinar
    30. Israel - Shekel
    31. Italy - Lira
    32. Japan - Yen
    33. Kampuchia or Cambodia - Riel
    34. Kazakhstan - Tenge
    35. North Korea - Won
    36. South Korea - Won
    37. Kuwait - Kuwait Dinar
    38. Kyrghyzstan - Som
    39. Laos - Kip
    40. Malaysia - Malaysian Dollar
    41. Maldives - Rufiyaa
    42. Mauritius - Mauritian Rupee
    43. Mexico - Mexican Peso
    44. Morocco - Dirham
    45. Nepal - Nepalese Rupee
    46. Netherlands - Dutch Guilder
    47. New Zealand - New Zealand Dollar
    48. Nigeria - Naira
    49. Norway - Norwegian Krone
    50. Oman - Omani Rial
    51. Pakistan - Pakistani Rupee
    52. Panama - Balbia
    53. Philippines - Philppine Peso
    54. Poland - Zloty
    55. Portugal - Escudo
    56. Romania - Leu
    57. Russia - Rouble
    58. Saudi Arabia - Saudi arabian Riyal
    59. Singapore - Singapore Dollar
    60. South Africa - Rand
    61. Spain - Peseta
    62. Sweden - Swedish Krone
    63. Switzerland - Swiss Franc
    64. Thailand - Baht
    65. Turkey - Turkish Lira
    66. Turkmenistan - Turkmenistan Rouble
    67. Ukraine - Ukraine Rouble
    68. UAE - UAE Dirham
    69. United Kingdom - Pound,Sterling
    70. United States of america - US Dollar
    71. Venezuela - Boliver
    72. Vietnam - Dong
    73. Zambia - Kwacha

    General knowledge India

    General knowledge India
    1. The first multipurpose project in India is - Damodar Valley
    2. The place in North East India which receives the highest annual rainfall is - Chirrapunji
    3. The largest Indian river flowing into the Arabian Sea is - Narmada
    4. Indian broadcasting was nationalised in - 1930
    5. The Indian forests are divided into how many regions - Eight
    6. The place where Indian Standard time coinsides with local time is - Allahabad
    7. The industry for which Vishakapatnam is famous for is - Ship Building
    8. The state which is the largest producer of iron ore in India is - Karnataka
    9. The longest railway platform in India measuring 836.63 mts. is located at - Kharagpur
    10. The Indian state which is largest exporter of cashewnut is - Kerala
    11. The main occupation of Indians is - Agriculture
    12. Nagarjuna Sagar dam is built across the River - Krishna
    13. Madras state was renamed as Tamilnadu in the year - 1969
    14. The main industry of Assam is - Tea Industry
    15. The Indian state which has maximum number of districts is - Uttar pradesh
    16. The length of Indian coastline is - 7500 kms
    17. The longest day in India is - 21st June
    18. The biggest museum in india is - Indian Museum,Calcutta
    19. The source of river Indus is - Mount Kailash,Tibet
    20. Kodaikanal, a famous holiday resort is located in - Tamilnadu
    21. Bangalore city is also called the - Garden city
    22. The only place in India where rock salt is found is in - Mandi,Himachal Pradesh
    23. The Gandhi Sagar dam is constructed across the river - Chambal
    24. The river that passes through the Thar desert is - Sindhu
    25. Nagoor,a place in Tamilnadu,is famous for - Famous muslim shrine
    26. The Hindustan Ship Yard is located at - Vishakapatnam
    27. The Indian state that tops in the production of cocoa is - Kerala
    28. The first major steel plant established in India was - Tata Iron & Steel Co,Jamshedpur
    29. Crude oil is found in south Gujarat at - Ankleshwar
    30. The first oil well drilled in India was at - Naharpong in Assam
    31. Calcutta is situated on the banks of river - Hoogli
    32. The largest opium growing state in India is - Uttar Pradesh
    33. Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd,India's largest manufacturer of penicillin is located at - Pimpri
    34. The former name of Arunachal Pradesh was - NEFA
    35. Khajuraho temples are located at - Chattarput,M.P.
    36. The Indian freedom fighter who turned into a famous spiritualist was - Aurobindo Ghosh
    37. The king who installed a `Chain of Justice' outside his place was - Jehangir
    38. The name of the mines in Rajasthas from where we get zinc is - Zawar
    39. Singereni in Andhra Pradesh is famous for - Coal Mines
    40. Amaravathi is located on the bank of river - Krishna
    41. Agra was founded in the year - 1506
    42. Ajmer was founded by - Raja Ajay Dev Chauhan
    43. The only Indian state where we find nickel ore is - Orissa
    44. The Udaygiri caves were built by - Karavelu
    45. The strength of Lok Sabha is - 545 members
    46. The National Museum of Natural History is located at - New Delhi
    47. The Indian Prime Minister who nationalised the banks was - Mrs.Indira Gandhi
    48. The birth date of Jawaharlal Nehru is - 14th November 1889
    49. The Environment protection Act came into effect in - 1986
    50. The capital city founded on the bank of river Gomathi is - Lucknow
    51. The president of the Indian National congress at its first session held in 1885 was - Womesh Chandra Banerji
    52. Bhaskara-II was a famous - Mathematician
    53. The Bhopal Gas leak incident occured in - Dec-84
    54. The city that is called the city of golden Temple is - Amritsar
    55. Traveller Hawkins visited India in the year - 1608 AD
    56. Mahadevi Varma won the Jnanpith for her book titled - Yama
    57. The headquarters of Oil and Natural Gas Commission is located at - Dehradun
    58. Satyartha Prakash'was written by - Swami Dayananda Saraswati
    59. Emperor Akbar's Revenue Minister was - Todarmal
    60. The elder brother of famous sitarist Ravishankar is - Uday Shankar,dancer
    61. The first batsman to score a century in each of his first three tests is - Mohammed Azharuddin
    62. The 10th Vice-President of India is - Krishan Kant
    63. The first Chief of Indian Navy was - R.D.Katari
    64. The longest road in India is the - Grand Trunk Road
    65. The first modern college in India is the - Fort William college,Calcutta
    66. The first purely Indian bank is the - Punjab National Bank
    67. Lalit Kala Academy of India is situated at - New Delhi
    68. The first Indian to win Oscar Award is - Bhanu Athaiya
    69. Goa was liberated in the year - 1961
    70. Sharda Act was enacted to prevent - Child Marriage
    71. National Science day is celebrated on - 28th February
    72. Jamnalal Bajaj Awards are given for - Constructive work
    73. Rabindranath Tagore give up his knighthood because of the tragic incident of - Jallianwala Bagh massacre
    74. The Chief minister of a state who was awarded the Bharat Ratna was - M.G.Ramachandran
    75. Baba Amte's real name is - Muralidhar Devidas Amte
    76. Mihirsen,India's famous long distance swimmer,was by profession - An Advocate
    77. Dr.Pramod Karan Sethi is famous for the - Jaipur foot
    78. Rabindranath Tagore was born at - Jorasanko,Calcutta
    79. The name of the school started by Rabindranath Tagore was - Shanti Niketan
    80. Neyveli Thermal Power Station is located in - Tamil Nadu
    81. The earlier name of Assam was - Kamrup
    82. Sir C.V.Raman was born at - Thirunavannikaval
    83. The Indian Academy of Science was founded by - C.V.Raman
    84. The Indian Academy of Science is located at - Bangalore
    85. All India Institute of Medical Science is located at - New Delhi
    86. Atomic Energy Commission is located at - Mumbai
    87. Cement Research Institute of India is located at - Balabhgarh
    88. Space Applications Centre is located at - Ahmedabad
    89. Jog falls is located at - Jog,Karnataka
    90. Jawaharlal Nehru died in the year - 1964
    91. Aurangzeb died in the year - 1707
    92. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan died in the year - Frontier Gandhi
    93. Rabindranath Tagore died in the year - 1941
    94. Mahatma Gandhi died in the year - 1948
    95. Zakir Hussein died in the year - 1969
    96. Raja Ram Mohan Roy died in the year - 1833
    97. India's second Prime Minister was - Gulzarilal Nanda
    98. The first Law Minister of Independent India was - Dr.B.R.Ambedkar
    99. Jawaharlal Nehru's biography "With No Regrets"was written by - Krishan Hathisingh
    100. India's first test tube baby was born in - Jun-86
    101. The leader whose death was announced in the Lok Sabha before his actual death was - Jayaprakash Narayan
    102. The Gold mines located in Andhra Pradesh are - Ramagiri Gold Fields,Ananthapur district
    103. The Homeguards were organised in India in the year - 1962
    104. Ankleshwar oil field is located in - Gujarat
    105. The Indian Prime Minister who wrote the book `Nature Cure'was - Morarji Desai
    106. Burma seperated from India in the year - 1937
    107. `Sea Bird'project is located at - Karwar
    108. The name of the artificial harbour along the west coast India is - Kandla
    109. The first medical college was established in India at - Calcutta
    110. Jawaharlal Nehru's mother's name was - Swaroop Rani
    111. The pin code was introduced in India in the year - 1972
    112. In his last years,Ambedkar converted to - Buddhism
    113. Gandhiji's mother's name was - Putli Bai
    114. Gandhiji was born on - 2nd October 1869
    115. Khushwant Singh is a famous - Journalist
    116. The film actor who became the chiefminister of Andhra Pradesh was - N.T.Rama Rao
    117. Satyajit Ray was awarded the Bharat Ratna in the year - 1992
    118. Central Research Institute is located at - Kasauli
    119. The movie Raja Harishchandra was released in the year - 1913
    120. The first Indian Prime Minister to resign from office was - Morarji Desai
    121. The largest railway bridge in India is - Sone Bridge,Bihar
    122. The largest dome in India is the - Gol Gumbaz,Bijapur
    123. Air Force Day is celebrated on - Oct-08
    124. Indian Military Academy is located at - Dehradun
    125. The postal department was set up in India in the year - 1854
    126. Army day is celebrated on - 21st Century
    127. Navy day is celebrated on - 4th December
    128. The national flower of India is - Lotus
    129. NABARD was established in the year - 1982
    130. Koradi Thermal power Station is located at - Maharashtra
    131. PTI stands for - Press Trust of India
    132. Rail Coach Factory is located at - Kapurthala
    133. The construction of India was adopted on - 26-11-1949
    134. The construction of India became effective on - 26-01-1950
    135. `Mrinalini'was written by - Bankim chandra Chatterjee
    136. Bhagat Singh was hanged in the year - 1931
    137. Sheik Abdulla was popularly known as - Sher-e-Kashmir
    138. Goa attained statehood on - 30-May-87
    139. Gujarat attained statehood on - 01-May-60
    140. Haryana attained statehood on - 01-Nov-66
    141. The capital of Haryana is - Chandigarh
    142. Panipat is popularly known as - Weaver City
    143. Dal lake is located in - Jammu and Kashmir
    144. Madhya Pradesh attained statehood on - Nov-56
    145. The capital of Madhya Pradesh is - Bhopal
    146. Manipur attained statehood on - 21st January 1972
    147. The capital of Manipur is - Imphal
    148. Meghalaya attained statehood on - 21st January 1972
    149. The capital of Meghalaya is - Shillong
    150. Meghalaya state was carved out of - Assam
    151. Mizoram attained statehood on - 20th February 1987
    152. The capital of Mizoram is - Aizawl
    153. Before attaining statehood,Mizoram was one of the districts of - Assam
    154. Nagaland attained statehood on - 01-Dec-63
    155. The capital of Nagaland is - Kohima
    156. Orissa was earlier known as - Kalinga
    157. The capital of Orissa is - Bhubaneshwar
    158. The main airport of Orissa is located at - Bhubaneshwar
    159. Rajasthan attained statehood in the year - 1958
    160. The capital of Rajasthan is - Jaipur
    161. The capital of Sikkim is - Gangtok
    162. India's highest peak is the - Kanchenjunga
    163. Mount Abu, a famous hill station is located at - Rajasthan
    164. The main attraction of Mount Abu are the - Dilwara Jain Temples
    165. Hussain Sagar Lake is located at - Hyderabad
    166. The Samadhi of Gandhiji is known as - Rajghat
    167. The Samadhi of Gandhiji is located on the bank of river - Yamuna
    168. The largest state in India is - Madhya Pradesh
    169. The highest TV tower in India is located at - New Delhi
    170. The most literate state in India is - Kerala
    171. Golconda Fort is located near - Hyderabad
    172. Gateway of India is located at - Mumbai
    173. Buland Darwaza is located at - Fatehpur Sikri
    174. Badrinath is located at - Uttar Pradesh
    175. Elephanta Caves are located on an island near - Mumbai
    176. Ajanta caves are located near - Aurangabad
    177. Humayu's tomb is located at - New Delhi
    178. Jantar Mantar is located in - New Delhi
    179. Jantar Mantar is an - Observatory
    180. Jantar Mantar was constructed by - Maharaja Jai Singh II
    181. Mughal Gardens is located at - New Delhi
    182. Qutb-Minar is located at - New Delhi
    183. Rashtrapati Bhawan was built by - Edwin Lutyens
    184. The samadhi of Indira Gandhi is known as - Shakti Sthal
    185. The Tower of Victory is located at - Chittoor
    186. Victoria Memorial is located at - Calcutta
    187. The highest airfield of India is the - Chushul airfield,Ladakh
    188. The largest lake of India is the - Wular lake,Kashmir
    189. The largest Zoo of India is the - Zoological Garden,Calcutta
    190. The most populated state of India is - Uttar Pradesh
    191. Central Bureau of Investigation was formed in - 1963
    192. BSF stands for - Border Security Force
    193. ITBP stands for - Indo-Tibetan Border Police
    194. The actual name of Mother Teresa was - Agnes Gonxha Bejaxhiu
    195. A programme launched by Chandrababu Naidu,Chief minister of Andhra Pradesh, to clean the city of Hyderabad was named - Janmabhoomi
    196. Vajpayee Government was sworn in for the second time on - 19-Mar-98
    197. Miss World 1997 contest was held at - Seychelles
    198. The Miss World 1997 title was won by - Diana Hayden
    199. The Miss World 1996 Contest was held at - Bangalore
    200. Mother Teresa died on - 05-Sep-97
    201. Bill Gates visited India in - Mar-97
    202. The Carnatic volalist who won the Bharat Ratna Award was - M.S.Subbulakshmi
    203. The first musician to get the Bharat Ratna - M.S.Subbulakshmi
    204. Kerala attained statehood on - 1st November 1956
    205. Sahar airport is located at - Mumbai
    206. Dum Dum airport is located at - Calcutta
    207. The first ever railway train travelled from - Bombay-Thane
    208. The only Indian metro railway system is at - Calcutta
    209. Air India was formed in - 1946
    210. Indian Airlines was formed in - 1953
    211. Indira Gandhi airport is located at - Delhi
    212. Meenambakkam airport is located at - Chennai
    213. The Export-Import Bank of India is also known as - EXIM Bank
    214. The Navy Academy is located at - Cochin
    215. In 1983,Bharat Ratna was posthumously awarded to - Acharya Vinoba Bhave
    216. Mrs.Indira Gandhi was assassinated on - 31-10-1984
    217. Mr.Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated on - 21-05-1991
    218. The strength of Rajya Sabha is - 250
    219. The supreme commander of Army,Navy and Airforce is the - President
    220. The Chairman of the Lok Sabha is the - Speaker
    221. Pong dam is located in - Punjab
    222. The fastest train in India is the - Shatabdi Express
    223. The oldest refinery in India is the - Digboi refinery
    224. The largest refinery of India is the - IOC Refinery at Koyah,Gujarat
    225. The Bhakra dam is built across the River - Sutlej
    226. The first General Elections were held in India in the year - 1952
    227. The first engineering college established in India is the - Thompson college,Roorkee
    228. The first library established in India is the - William Carey library,Serampore
    229. The oldest english daily newspaper of India is - The Times of India
    230. The largest post office in India is the - GPO,Mumbai
    231. The largest prison in India is the - Tihar Central Jail,Delhi
    232. The first Indian state formed on linguistic basis after Independence was - Andhra Pradesh
    233. The largest cave temple in India is - Ellora
    234. The only diamond producing area in India is - Panna Diamond Belt,M.P.
    235. The biggest public sector bank in India is the - State Bank of India
    236. Reserve Bank of India was established in - 1935
    237. The oldest tree in India is the - Monus Serrata at Joshimutt
    238. The first Education Minister of free India was - Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
    239. Who is known as the Father of Indian industry - Jamshedji Tata
    240. Gandhiji was assassinated by - Nathuram Godse
    241. VDIS was launched on - July 1, 1997

    United Nations Organizations

    United Nations Organizations :
    United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) officially came into existence on the 24 October, 1945, by ratification of the Charter by China, France, the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. October 24 is called the U.N. Day.

    Purposes of the United Nations :
    The purposes of the UN are the following : 1) Maintaining international peace and security, 2) Developing friendly relations among nations, 3) Cooperating internationally in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamentalfreedoms and 4) Harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.

    Human Rights Day :
    10th October is observed as the Human Rights Day. The General Assembly of the UNO, recalling that on 10 December, 1973, the world community would celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Universal Declarationof Human Rights, expressed the hope that this anniversary would be celebrated in a manner which would fit the occasion and serve the cause of human rights.

    Finance of the U.N. :
    The U.N. is financed by contributions from member States on the recommendation of the Committee on Contributions. The member States contribute to the expenses of the U.N. budget and to the working Capital Fund.

    Headquarters and Offices :
    The headquarters of the U.N. is at New York. The European office is at Geneva, Switzerland. U.N. Information Centres and services are operating at 50 capital centres all over the world.

    United Nation's Flag :
    The flag of the U.N. is light blue in colour and emblazoned in white at the centre with the U.N.'s symbol - a polar map of the world embraced by twin olive branches.

    Organs of the United Nations Organization :
    The principal organs of the United Nations are : 1) General Assembly, 2) Security Council, 3) Economic and Social Council, 4) Trusteeship Council, 5) International Court of Justice and 6) Secretariat.

    U.N. International Agencies :
    The following are U.N. International Agencies :
    1.    Food and Agricultural Organizational (FAO) Its purpose is to help nations to raise living standards and improve efficiency of farming. Its headquarters is in Rome.
    2.    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
    3.    Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization.(IMCO)- It is a specialized body to deal with international shipping. Its headquarters is in London.
    4.    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)- Its aim is to enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity. Its headquarters is in Viena.
    5.    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or World Bank. Its headquarters is in Washington.
    6.    International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Its headquarters is in Mont read.
    7.    International Development Association (IDA)
    8.    International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Its headquarters is in Rome.
    9.    International Finance Corporation (IFC)- Its purpose is to promote economic development by investing in new and existing enterprises by bringing together private capital and management. Its headquarters is in Washington.
    10.    International Labour Organization (ILO)- The purpose of ILO are mainly to contribute to lasting peace by promoting social justice, to improve labour conditions and to promote economic and social stability. Its headquarters is in Geneva.
    11.    International Monetary Fund (IMF)- It is the world's largest source of readily available international credit. Its headquarters is in Washington.
    12.    International Telecommunication Union (ITU)- Its headquarters is in Geneva.
    13.    International Trade Organization (ITo)
    14.    United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)- Its headquarters is in New York.
    15.    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
    16.    United Nations Disengagement Observe Force (UNDOF)
    17.    United Nations Development programme (UNDP)
    18.    United Nations Disaster Relief Coordination Office (UNDRO)
    19.    United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Its headquarters is in Paris.
    20.    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
    21.    United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)- Its purpose is to promote industrial development of developing countries. Its headquarters is in Vienna.
    22.    United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
    23.    United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
    24.    Universal postal Union (UPU) Its headquarters is in Berne.
    25.    World Health Organization (WHO). This Organization came into being on April 7 in 1948. Its objective is attainment by all people the highest possible level of health. Its headquarters are at Geneva, Switzerland. April 7 is called the World Health Day.
    26.    World Food Programme (WFP)
    27.    World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Its headquarters is in Geneva.
    28.    Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development (SUNFED)

    Body Facts

    Body Facts 

    Bones :    - The largest bones is the femur, or thigh bone which is 20 inches in a six-foot tall man. The smallest bone is the stirrup in the ear, which is one-tenth of an inch. Each had has 27 bones : eight in the wrist, five in the palm, and 14 in the fingers. A newborn baby has 300 bones, some of which fuse to form in the adult.
    Blood :    In a child, there are 60,000 miles of blood vessels. An adult has 100,000 miles of blood vessels. The blood circulates through the body 1,000 times a day.
    Brain :    A newborn baby has a brain that weights three ounces. The average brain of an adult weighs three pounds. The brains is the "mission control center" of the body, sending our messages at a rate of 240 miles per hour. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body.
    The cells are the body's building blocks. There are about 26 billion cells in an adult.
    Cells :
    Eyes :    Each eye weighs 1 1/4 ounces. The eyes are constantly in motion, even during sleep. Tears keep the eyes warm and are continually secreted through 12 ducts in the eye. Tears are normally secreted through two canals near the inner corner of the eyes.
    Fluid :    The body is two-thirds water. Blood is 83% water, muscles are 75% water, the brain 74% water, and the bones contain 22% water. In a single day, three pints of saliva are produced in the mouth.
    Hair :    Kids have about 75,000 hairs on their heads, which grow about 1/100 of an inch daily. Hairs of different colors grow at different rates. Dark hair grows faster than light-colored hair. No one known why. Each hair on the scalp grows about five inches a year. Eyelashes keep dust out of the eyes. Aneyelash lives about 150 days before it falls out and is replaced.
    Muscles :    There are over 650 muscles in the body, form the tiny ones that move the legs. The strongest muscle is the masseter muscle of the jaw. It takes at least 14 muscles to smile. The smallest in the body is located in the middle ear. Fingers have no muscles.
    Nails :    Nails are made up of hardened skin called kertain. Nails protect the ends of the fingers and toes. The half-moon at the root of the nail is called the lunule. Nails grow faster in summer than in winter. Fingernails grow fourtimes faster than toenails. Right - handed people's nails grow faster in their right hands. Left-handed people's nails grow faster on their left hand.
    Nose :    More than 2,500 gallons of air flow through the average adult's nose in a day. The nose can recognize up to 1,000 different smells. The nose is the air conditioning unit of the body. It cools or warms incoming air. It also filters the dirt and dust in the air.
    Skin :    The human body has six pounds of skin which is, on average, 1/20 of an inch thick. The two layers of skin are the epidermins and under it, the dermis. The skin is waterproof, it protects the body and helps to regulate body temperature. A substance called melanin colors the skin the more melanin, the darker the skin. A freckle is a dense concentration of melanin. A new layer of skin replaces the old layer approximately every 27 days, totalling about 1,000 new outer layers of skin a lifetime.
    Teeth :    Humans have 20 primary Baby teeth and 32 permanent teeth. By age 13 most people have 28 teeth. By age 18 the four "wisdom" teeth have grown in for a total of 32 permanent teeth.

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